A safeguard investigation may lead to quantitative restrictions on imports of the investigated product (import or tariff quota) from any non-EU country and surveillance (a system of automatic import licensing).
Import quotas should not be lower than the average level of imports over the last three representative years for which statistics are available.
In several cases, the Commission has imposed tariff quotas allowing imports in excess of the quota, subject to additional duty
Today, the European Commission published its Annual Report on the EU's trade defence activities of 2021. The Report concludes that 462,000 EU jobs were directly protected by the EU's trade measures in 2021 in key EU manufacturing sectors such as aluminium, steel, ceramics and green technology.
An arbitration panel ruled in favour of the EU in a bilateral dispute with the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) under the EU–Southern African Development Community Economic Partnership Agreement (EU-SADC EPA ) over a safeguard measure imposed by SACU on EU imports of frozen chicken cuts.