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Trade

Negotiations and agreements

Trade topics
Negotiations and agreements

In focus

EU-India agreement

EU-India Free Trade Agreement, Investment Protection Agreement and Geographical Indications Agreement

Being negotiated

EU-Singapore agreements

EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement | Investment Protection Agreement | Digital Trade Agreement

In place | Being adopted or ratified | Being negotiated

Overview of ongoing bilateral and regional negotiations 

Overview of Economic Partnership Agreements

Map: State of play of EU trade agreements with third countries

Agreements in place

Country (Region) Agreement Status
Albania (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2009
Algeria Association Agreement In force since 2005
Andorra Customs union In force since 1991
Antigua and Barbuda (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since June 2018
Azerbaijan Partnership and Cooperation Agreement In force since 1999, negotiations on modernisation began in 2017, on hold since 2019
Bahamas (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Barbados (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Belize (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2015
Botswana (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionnaly applied since 2016
Cameroon (Central Africa) Interim Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2014
Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) Provisionally applied since 2017
Chile Association Agreement and Additional Protocol In force since 2003. Negotiations on modernisation began in 2017, and were concluded in 2023. 
Colombia (with Ecuador and Peru) Trade Agreement Provisionally applied since 2013
Comoros (ESA) Interim Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2019, negotiations on modernisation began in 2019
Costa Rica (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Provisionally applied since 2013
Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) Stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2016
Dominica (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Dominican Republic (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Ecuador (with Colombia and Peru) Trade Agreement Provisionally applied since 2013
Egypt Association Agreement In force since 2004
El Salvador (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Provisionally applied since 2013
Eswatini (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2016
Faroe Islands Agreement In force since 1997
Fiji (Pacific) Interim Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2014
Georgia Association Agreement In force since 2016
Ghana (West Africa) Stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2016
Grenada (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Guatemala (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Provisionally applied since 2013
Guyana (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Honduras (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Provisionally applied since 2013
Iceland Economic Area Agreement In force since 1994
Israel Association Agreement In force since 2000
Iraq Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Provisionally applied since 2012
Jamaica (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Japan Global agreement In force since 2019
Jordan Association Agreement In force since 2002
Kazakhstan Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) Provisionally applied since 2016; in force since 2020. Negotiations on adding a protocol to the EPCA regarding Geographical Indications (GIs) for agricultural products and foodstuffs, wines and spirits are ongoing. 
Kosovo* Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2016
Lebanon Association Agreement In force since 2006
Lesotho (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2016
Liechtenstein Economic Area Agreement In force since 1995
Madagascar (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2012, negotiations on modernisation began in 2019
Mauritius (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2012, negotiations on modernisation began in 2019
Mexico Global Agreement In force since 2000, negotiations on modernisation began in 2016, ‘Agreement in principle’ on the trade part reached in 2018
Moldova Association Agreement In force since 2016; Amended in 2023
Montenegro (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2010
Morocco Association Agreement In force since 2000, negotiations on modernisation began in 2013, on hold since 2014
Mozambique (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2018
Namibia (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2019
Nicaragua (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Provisionally applied since 2013
North Macedonia (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2004
Norway Economic Area Agreement In force since 1994
Palestinian Authority Interim Association Agreement In force since 1997
Papua New Guinea (with Pacific) Interim Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2013
Peru (with Colombia and Ecuador) Trade Agreement Provisionally applied since 2013
Samoa (Pacific) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2018
San Marino Customs union In force since 1991
Serbia (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2013
Seychelles (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2012; negotiations on modernisation began in 2019
Singapore Free Trade Agreement In force since 2019
Solomon Islands (Pacific) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2020
South Africa Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2016
South Korea Free Trade Agreement In force since 2015
St Kitts and Nevis (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
St Lucia (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
St Vincent and the Grenadines (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Suriname (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Switzerland Agreement In force since 1973
Trinidad and Tobago (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Tunisia Association Agreement In force since 1998, negotiations on modernisation began in 2015, on hold since 2019
Türkiye Customs union In force since 1995
Ukraine Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement
Association Agreement
Provisionally applied since 2016
United Kingdom Trade and Cooperation Agreement In force since 2021
Vietnam Free Trade Agreement In force since 2020
Zimbabwe (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2012, negotiations on modernisation began in 2019

This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

Agreements being adopted or ratified

In some circumstances trade negotiations with a trade partner have been concluded, but have not been either signed or ratified yet. This means that although the negotiations have finished, no part of the agreement is in place yet.

Country (Region) Agreement pending Status
Argentina (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations concluded in June 2019
Benin (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Brazil  (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations concluded in June 2019
Burkina Faso (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Burundi (EAC) Economic Partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Cabo Verde (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Gambia (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Guinea (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Guinea-Bisseau (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Haiti (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement  Signed, but has not ratified agreement
Kenya (EAC) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed and ratified, provisional application when all EAC countries sign and ratify
Kyrgyz Republic (Central Asia) Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Awaiting signature from all parties
Liberia (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Mali (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Mauritania (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
New Zealand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations concluded in June 2022
Niger (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Nigeria (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Paraguay  (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations concluded in June 2019
Rwanda (EAC) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, provisional application when all EAC countries sign and ratify
Senegal (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Sierra Leone (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Tanzania (EAC) Economic Partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Togo (West Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Uganda (EAC) Economic Partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Uruguay  (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations concluded in June 2019
Uzbekistan (Central Asia) Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement  Agreement initialled in July 2022; being prepared for signature 

Agreements being negotiated

The EU has trade agreements in place with these countries/regions, but both sides are now negotiating an update.

Country (Region) New agreement being negotiated Status
Australia Australia Agreement Negotiations launched in 2018
China EU-China investment agreement Negotiations launched in 2013
India Free Trade Agreement, Investment Protection Agreement and Geographical Indications Agreement Negotiations started in 2007. They paused in 2013, before restarting in 2022.
Indonesia Free Trade Agreement Negotiations launched in 2016
Philippines Free Trade Agreement Negotiations launched in 2015
Singapore Digital Trade Agreement Negotiations launched in July 2023
Tajikistan (Central Asia) Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement  Negotiations launched in February 2023
Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 2013, paused in 2014, and resumed in 2023. 

Agreements on hold

Country (Region) Agreement Status
Bahrain (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Central African Republic (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
Chad (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
Congo (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
Djibouti (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011
Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
Ethiopia (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011
Gabon (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
India Free Trade Agreement  
Kuwait (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Malawi (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011
Malaysia Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 2010, paused since 2012
Myanmar Investment Protection Agreement Negotiations launched in 2015
Oman (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Qatar (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Republic Democratic of Congo (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
São Tomé & Principe (Central Africa) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2003, paused until further notice in 2011
Saudi Arabia (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Somalia (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011
Sudan (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011
United Arab Emirates (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started in 1990, suspended since 2008
Zambia (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Negotiations started in 2004, paused until further notice in 2011

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