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EU trade relations with Türkiye. Facts, figures and latest developments.

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EU-Türkiye trade relations are based on an Association Agreement from 1963 and a Customs Union agreement, which entered into force on 31 December 1995.

Türkiye has been a candidate country to join the European Union since 1999. Accession negotiations started in 2005, but have not advanced recently. Türkiye is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Trade picture

  • Türkiye is the EU’s 7th biggest trade partner, representing 3.3% of the EU’s total trade in goods with the world (imports and exports combined) in 2022.
  • The EU is by far Türkiye’s largest merchandise import and export partner. In 2022, 26% of Türkiye’s goods imports came from the EU and 41% of the country’s goods exports went to the EU.
  • Total trade in goods between the EU and Türkiye in 2022 amounted to €198.1 billion (3.6% of the EU’s total trade with the world). The EU’s imports from Türkiye were worth €98.6 billion and were led by textiles (€17.5 billion, 17.7%), closely followed by transport equipment (€17.3 billion), base metals and articles (€16.8 billion), and machinery and appliances (€15.8 billion). The EU’s exports to Türkiye totalled €99.6 billion. They were dominated by machinery and appliances (€25 billion, 25.1%), transport equipment (€17.5 billion), base metals and articles (€13.1 billion), and chemicals (€13.1 billion).
  • Total trade in services between the EU and Türkiye in 2021 amounted to €24.2 billion, representing 1.2% of the EU’s total trade with the world in services. EU imports of services represented €11.4 billion and exports €12.8 billion, respectively making each side the other's 12th and 16th biggest trade partner for services in the world. Transport (€4.7 billion, 41.2%) and travel services (€3.9 billion, 34.2%) are EU's the most imported services from Türkiye, and transport (€4.5 billion, 35.2%) and ICT services (€2.7 billion, 21.8%) are the EU's most exported services to Türkiye.

The EU and Türkiye

In 1963, the European Economic Community (the EEC; the EU’s predecessor) and Türkiye signed the Ankara Association Agreement, which expanded their economic and trade relations. An Additional Protocol aimed at progressively establishing a customs union between Türkiye and the EEC, and more closely aligning economic policies between the two parties, entered into force in 1973.

The Customs Union entered into force on 31 December 1995. It was the EU’s first substantial customs union with a non-EU country. It covers all industrial goods, but does not address agriculture (except for processed agricultural products), services or public procurement. Bilateral trade concessions apply to agricultural, coal and steel products. The Customs Union provides for a common external tariff for the products covered. It also foresees that Türkiye aligns to EU law (the acquis communautaire) in areas related to the Customs Union, such as customs legislation, the removal of technical barriers to trade, and the approximation of laws on protecting intellectual, industrial and commercial property and competition rules (including state aid).

Since its entry into force, the value of bilateral trade has increased more than fourfold. The Customs Union is also broadly recognised for having significantly contributed to Türkiye’s integration into European production networks. The alignment with the EU acquis and the liberalisation of tariffs have enhanced Türkiye’s global competitiveness. Around 30% of Türkiye’s GDP is associated with trade.

In December 2016, the Commission proposed to modernise the Customs Union and to extend bilateral trade relations to areas such as services, public procurement and sustainable development. The Commission proposal was based on comprehensive preparatory work throughout 2016, which included a public consultation with stakeholders. However, the Council has not yet adopted the negotiating directives.

More information on the Customs Union and preferential arrangements

Türkiye and the Union for the Mediterranean

Türkiye is one of 42 current members of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), which was launched in 2008 as a continuation of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership established at the Barcelona Conference in 1995.

This inter-governmental partnership promotes cooperation and dialogue in the Euro-Mediterranean region and brings together all 27 EU Member States and 15 countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Palestine*, Syria – suspended, Tunisia and Türkiye; Libya is an observer).

The UfM’s strategic objectives are regional stability, human development and regional economic integration. Its overall aim is to transform the Euro-Mediterranean region into an area of peace, stability and prosperity.

More information on the Union for the Mediterranean

Türkiye trading with the world

In addition to the Customs Union and other agreements with the EU, Türkiye has 22 Free Trade Agreements in force with: EFTA countries, Israel, North Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Palestine*, Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Syria (suspended), Albania, Georgia, Montenegro, Serbia, Chile, Mauritius, South Korea, Malaysia, Moldova, Faroe Islands, Singapore, Kosovo, Venezuela and the United Kingdom.

More details

Committees and Dialogues

The EU and Türkiye meet regularly to discuss issues and best practices and oversee the proper functioning of the Agreement.

Technical committee meetings - agendas and reports

Trading with Türkiye

* This designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the individual positions of the Member States on this issue.

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